Reference: Builtin Functions¶
This page gives reference information on builtin functions for working with a variety of common concepts.
Work with Time¶
Daml has these builtin functions for working with time:
datetime
: creates aTime
given year, month, day, hours, minutes, and seconds as argument.subTime
: subtracts one time from another. Returns theRelTime
difference betweentime1
andtime2
.addRelTime
: add times. Takes aTime
andRelTime
and adds theRelTime
to theTime
.days
,hours
,minutes
,seconds
: constructs aRelTime
of the specified length.pass
: (in Daml Script tests only) usepass : RelTime > Script Time
to advance the ledger time by the argument amount. Returns the new time.
Work with Numbers¶
Daml has these builtin functions for working with numbers:
round
: rounds aDecimal
number toInt
.round d
is the nearestInt
tod
. Tiebreaks are resolved by rounding away from zero, for example:round 2.5 == 3 round (2.5) == 3 round 3.4 == 3 round (3.7) == 4
truncate
: converts aDecimal
number toInt
, truncating the value towards zero, for example:truncate 2.2 == 2 truncate (2.2) == 2 truncate 4.9 == 4 v (4.9) == 4
intToDecimal
: converts anInt
toDecimal
.
The set of numbers expressed by Decimal
is not closed under division as the result may require more than 10 decimal places to represent. For example, 1.0 / 3.0 == 0.3333...
is a rational number, but not a Decimal
.
Work with Text¶
Daml has these builtin functions for working with text:
<>
operator: concatenates twoText
values.show
converts a value of the primitive types (Bool
,Int
,Decimal
,Party
,Time
,RelTime
) to aText
.
To escape text in Daml strings, use \
:
Character  How to escape it 

\ 
\\ 
" 
\" 
' 
\' 
Newline  \n 
Tab  \t 
Carriage return  \r 
Unicode
(using ! as
an example) 

Work with Lists¶
Daml has these builtin functions for working with lists:
foldl
andfoldr
: see Fold below.
Fold¶
A fold takes:
 a binary operator
 a first accumulator value
 a list of values
The elements of the list are processed onebyone (from the left in a foldl
, or from the right in a foldr
).
Note
We’d usually recommend using foldl
, as foldr
is usually slower. This is because it needs to traverse the whole list before starting to discharge its elements.
Processing goes like this:
 The binary operator is applied to the first accumulator value and the first element in the list. This produces a second accumulator value.
 The binary operator is applied to the second accumulator value and the second element in the list. This produces a third accumulator value.
 This continues until there are no more elements in the list. Then, the last accumulator value is returned.
As an example, to sum up a list of integers in Daml:
sumList =
script do
assert (foldl (+) 0 [1, 2, 3] == 6)