This feature is only available in Canton Enterprise
Replicated Participant Node Architecture¶
High availability of a participant node is achieved with a replicated participant node in an active-passive configuration, where the active replica is serving requests and one or more passive replicas are in a warm stand-by mode ready to take over when the active replica fails.
High-Level System Design¶
A participant node consists of multiple participant node replicas using a shared database and each replica exposing its own ledger API. However from an application point of view, the fact that multiple replicas exists can be hidden by exposing a single ledger API endpoint through a highly available load balancer.
Participant Node Replica Monitoring and Fail-Over¶
Operating a participant node in a replicated active-passive configuration with a shared database requires to establish the active replica, i.e., perform a leader election, and to enforce a single writer, i.e., the active replica, to the shared database.
We are using exclusive application-level database locks tied to the lifetime of the connection to the database to achieve leader election and a enforce single writer. Alternative existing approaches for leader election, such as using Raft, are not suitable because in between the leader check and the use of the shared resource, i.e., writing to the database, the leader status could have been lost and we cannot guarantee a single writer.
Leader Election through Exclusive Lock Acquisition¶
A participant node replica tries to acquire an exclusive application level lock (e.g. Postgres advisory lock) bound to a particular database connection and use that same connection for all writes that are not idempotent. The replica that has acquired the lock is the leader and the active replica. Using the same connection for writes ensures that the lock is held while writes are performed.
Lock ID Allocation¶
The exclusive application level locks are identified by a 30bit integer. The lock id is allocated based on the scope name of the lock and a lock counter. The lock counter differentiates locks used in Canton from each other, depending on their usage. The scope ensures the uniqueness of the lock id for a given lock counter. For the allocation the scope and counter are hashed and truncated to 30bit to generate a unique lock id.
On Oracle the lock scope is the schema name, i.e., the user name. On Postgres it is the name of the database. The participant replicas must allocate the same lock ids for the same lock counter, therefore it is crucial that the replicas are configured with the same storage configuration, e.g., for Oracle using the same username to allocate the lock ids with the same scope.
Enforce Passive Replica¶
The replicas that do not hold the exclusive lock are passive and cannot write to the shared database. To avoid any attempts to write to the database, which would fail and produce an error, we use a coarse-grained guard on domain connectivity and API services to enforce a passive replica.
To prevent the passive replica from processing any domain events and reject incoming ledger API requests, we keep the passive replica disconnected from the domains as a coarse-grained enforcement.
Lock Loss and Fail-Over¶
If the active replica crashes or loses connection to the database, the lock will be released and a passive replica can claim the lock and become active. Any pending writes in the formerly active replica will fail as the underlying connection and the corresponding lock has been lost.
There is a grace period for the active replica to rebuild the connection and reclaim the lock to avoid unnecessary fail-overs on short connection interruptions. The passive replicas continuously try to acquire the lock with a configurable interval. Once the lock is acquired, the participant replication manager sets the state of the replica to active and completes the fail-over.
As part of a passive replica becoming active, the replica is connected to previously connected domains to resume processing of events. Further the new active replica now accepts incoming requests, e.g., on the ledger API. On the other hand, the former active replica that is now passive needs to reject any incoming requests as the replica can no longer write to the shared database.
Ledger API Client Fail-Over via Load Balancer¶
To hide the fact that a participant is replicated and to offer a single ledger API endpoint towards applications, we recommend the usage of layer 4 (=TCP level), highly available load balancer.
The load balancer (LB) is configured with a pool of backend servers based on the ledger API server addresses and ports of the participant node replicas. The participant node replicas expose their status if they are the active or passive replica via a health endpoint. The LB periodically checks the health API endpoint of the replicas and marks a backend server offline if the replica is passive. Thus the load balancer only sends requests to the active backend server. The polling frequency of the health endpoints affect the fail-over times.
During fail-over requests may still be send to the former active replica, which will be rejected and the application has to retry the submission of commands in that case until they are forwarded to the new active replica.